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ISPRS 2004 Topographic Mapping of Mars from Hectometer to Micrometer Scales
We describe USGS topomapping of Mars at resolutions from 100 m to 30 µm with data from the latest spacecraft missions. Analysis of NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) data combining daytime visible reflected, daytime IR emitted, and nighttime IR emitted images allows us to isolate the physical effects of topography, albedo, and thermal inertia. To a good approximation these physical influences interact linearly so that maps showing topographic shading, albedo, and relative thermal inertia can be produced by simple algebraic manipulation of the coregistered images. The shading map resembles an airbrush shaded relief portrayal of the surface, and can be used as the input for quantitative reconstruction of topography by photoclinometry (PC) at 100-m resolution over most of the planet. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of the ESA Mars Express orbiter includes a 9-line scanner for color and stereo imaging and a Super-Resolution Channel (SRC). We analyze these images with a combination of USGS ISIS cartographic software and commercial photogrammetric software, providing an independent check on the stereo processing pipe line developed by the HRSC team. In particular, we are producing very high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from the SRC images by photoclinometry and by stereoanalysis, using Mars Orbiter Camera images to complete the stereopair. The NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) carry a diverse set of cameras: two wide-angle hazard camera pairs, panoramic stereo imagers (Pancam and Navcam), and a Microscopic Imager (MI) that images a 3-cm-square area at 30 µm/pixel resolution. Our work emphasizes MI data and includes geometric calibration, bundle-adjustment, mosaicking, generation of DEMs by stereoanalysis and focal sectioning, and combination of MI images with color data from Pancam. The software being developed to support these analyses can also be used to produce high-precision controlled mosaics, DEMs, and other products from the Pancam and Navcam images.
- R. L. Kirk, S. W. Squyres, G. Neukum, MER Athena and MEX HRSC Science Teams
- Added to Astropedia
- 14 May 2012
- 9 July 2013
- Geospatial Data Presentation Form