Mars catalog of small volcanic vents in the Tharsis province v1 Bleacher
This data set represents ongoing identification, characterization, and mapping of small vents across the Tharsis province utilizes Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data.
Volcanic vents are spatially cataloged as single points, referencing their plan view position with respect to the THEMIS infrared (IR) day-time mosaic and the gridded MOLA dataset base maps. Each datum is assumed to represent the four-dimensional (space and time) pathway along which magma ascended through the crust to erupt at the surface and produce an identifiable vent structure. Within this catalog volcanic vents are defined as positive topographic landforms, tens to hundreds of meters in height, with flows or flow-like textures radiating from the apex and/or summit depressions. Many positive topographic landforms lack clear flow features or a preserved depression at the apex, but are otherwise morphologically similar to cataloged vents. These landforms, which are tens to hundreds of meters in height, are also cataloged. It is assumed that many volcanic vents that formed across the Tharsis region have since been buried by continued volcanism or other processes. This catalog provides no inferences about buried vents, nor does this catalog provide any information about stalled magma bodies for which ascension pathways were established but did not lead to surface. Instead, vents that are currently identifiable on the surface are assumed to represent the last stage of eruptive activity in the region. This catalog does not differentiate vent types based on morphology (fissures vs. shields) or inferred eruption conditions. Each point simply represents a site at which we believe magma was erupted onto the surface of Mars. New vent features are identified as data collection continues at Mars and the catalog will be updated appropriately. Thus, this dataset can be used as a starting point for future projects that investigate distributed volcanism across Tharsis.
Mission and Instrument Information:
Mars Global Surveyor was the first successful U.S. mission launched to Mars since the Viking mission in 1976. After a 20-year absence at the planet, Mars Global Surveyor ushered in a new era of Mars exploration with its five science investigations. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) has acquired a variety of observations, including broadband visible/near-IR (VISIR) data (0.3 to 2.9 micrometers) and broadband thermal IR data (5.1 to 150 micrometers) using bolometers, in addition to spectrometer observations covering 5.8 to 50 micrometers in wavelength (Christensen et al., 2001).
Mars Express is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) it launched in June 2003 onboard a Soyuz-Fregat launcher from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The High/Super Resolution Stereo Colour Imager (HRSC) is one of seven instrument suites onboard Mars Express. The HRSC is imaging the entire planet in full color, 3D and with a resolution of about 10 meters (PDS IMG, 2018).
2001 Mars Odyssey launched on April 7, 2001, and arrived at Mars on October 24, 2001 as part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. The 2001 Mars Odyssey carries three star cameras, the Mars Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), which measures the near-space radiation environment as related to the radiation-related risk to human explorers, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), which maps the mineralogy of the martian surface using a high-resolution camera and a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer, and the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS), which maps the elemental composition of the surface and determine the abundance of hydrogen in the shallow subsurface (PDS IMG, 2018a).
NASA's Viking Mission to Mars was composed of two spacecraft, Viking 1 and Viking 2, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander. The primary mission objectives were to obtain high resolution images of the Martian surface, characterize the structure and composition of the atmosphere and surface, and search for evidence of life.
The Viking Landers transmitted images of the surface, took surface samples and analyzed them for composition and signs of life, studied atmospheric composition and meteorology, and deployed seismometers. The Viking 2 Lander ended communications on April 11, 1980, and the Viking 1 Lander on November 13, 1982, after transmitting over 1400 images of the two sites.
Bleacher, J. E., Glaze, L. S., Greeley, R., Hauber, E., Baloga, S. M., Sakimoto, S. E. H., Williams, D. A., & Glotch, T. D. (2009). Spatial and alignment analyses for a field of small volcanic vents south of Pavonis Mons and implications for the Tharsis province, Mars. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 185(1–2), 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.04.008
Bleacher, J. E., Greeley, R., Williams, D. A., Cave, S. R., & Neukum, G. (2007). Trends in effusive style at the Tharsis Montes, Mars, and implications for the development of the Tharsis province. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112(E9). https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002873
Christensen, P. R., Bandfield, J. L., Hamilton, V. E., Ruff, S. W., Kieffer, H. H., Titus, T. N., Malin, M. C., et al. (2001). Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(E10), 23823-23872. https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JE001370
Richardson, J. A., Bleacher, J. E., & Glaze, L. S. (2013). The volcanic history of Syria Planum, Mars. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 252, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.11.007
Williams, D. R. (2018). Viking Mission to Mars.https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/viking.html
- Publication Date
- 8 April 2014
- Jacob Bleacher
- Added to Astropedia
- 13 June 2014
- 5 March 2020
We hypothesize that fields of small vents in the Tharsis province are representative of significant magmatic events much as they are on the Earth, and that together with detailed mapping, statistical studies will provide insight into the role that small vent field formation played in the development of the province.
- Geospatial Data Presentation Form
- Vector Data, Database
- April 8, 2014 (140408)
- Native Data Set Environment
- ESRI Arcinfo
- Supplemental Information
- http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0377027309001838, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037702731200337X , http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006JE002873 , http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2010/pdf/1615.pdf
- Volcanism, Geographic Information System (GIS), Geomorphology
- Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, Viking Orbiter
- THEMIS, HRSC, HiRISE, VIS
Contact and Distribution
- Access Constraints
- Use Constraints
- Please cite authors
Data Status and Quality
- Currentness Reference
- Publication date
- In Work
- Update Frequency
- As needed
- Logical Consistency Report
- This catalog does not differentiate vent types based on morphology (fissures vs. shields) or inferred eruption conditions. Each point simply represents a site at which we believe magma was erupted onto the surface of Mars. New vent features are identified as data collection continues at Mars and the catalog will be updated appropriately.
- Completeness Report
This dataset can be used as a starting point for future projects that investigate distributed volcanism across Tharsis.
- Process Description
Vents were mapped on THEMIS IR/VIS (ASU), MOLA topography (Goddard) and HRSC (DLR)
- Horizontal Positional Accuracy Value
- Horizontal Positional Accuracy Report
- Accurate to Control Net
- Entity and Attribute Overview
- Each point simply represents a site at which we believe magma was erupted onto the surface of Mars.
- PDS Status
- PDS 4 In Progress
- Source Originator
- Planetary Data System
- Source Title
- Mars Space Flight Facility
- Source Online Linkage
- Type of Source Media
- Attribute Accuracy Report
- Accurate to Control Net
- Feature Name
- Tharsis province
- Location Description
- Minimum Latitude
- Maximum Latitude
- Minimum Longitude
- Maximum Longitude
- Direct Spatial Reference Method
- Object Type
- Quad Name
- Radius A
- Radius C
- Control Net
- Horizontal Coordinate System Units
- Map Projection Name
- Simple Cylindrical
- Latitude Type
- Longitude Direction
- Positive East
- Longitude Domain
- -180 to 180