Astrogeology Science Center

1999 - Present

Space Scientist - U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff AZ. Research: Spectral analysis of Martian polar regions using data from MGS TES, Mars Odyssey THEMIS, and MRO CRISM. Thermal surface properties of 4 Vesta.

Oct 2010 - Jan 2011

Acting Science Center Director - U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff AZ.

1997 - 1999

Remote Sensing Analyst - Contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ, and Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN. Research: Spectral analysis of Martian polar regions using data from MGS TES.

1996 - 1997

Staff Lecturer - University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY. Research: Multivariate analysis of galaxy spectra.


Civilian Education

  • Ph.D.,Astrophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, 1996
  • M.S., Astrophysics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 1988
  • B.A., Physics/Mathematics, Drake University, Des Moines, IA, 1985

Military Education

  • Engineer Officer Basic Course (1988)
  • Artillery Officer Advance Course (1992)
  • Combined Arms Service and Staff School (1995)
  • Command General Staff College (2000)
  • Quartermaster Officer Advance Course (2003)


  • Mars Polar Processes: Specifically - the CO2 cycle and polar energy balance.
  • Mars Thermal Inertia Studies: Specifically - the use of 2-layer thermal inertia models to detect sub-surface ice.
  • Mars Aeolian Studies: Specially - the global inventory and characterization of Mars dunes.
  • Cave Detection using the Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing: Specifically - using ground truth thermal characterization of terrestrial caves to develope techniques and procedures for detecting caves on Earth, the Moon, and Mars.


  • Co-Investigator on Mars Odyssey THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS).
  • Co-Investigator on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM).
  • Selected as a Dawn at Vesta Participating Scientist.


Military Service

Lieutenant Colonel (Retired) Timothy N. Titus

Last Position prior to Retirement

Chief of Logistics
Camp Navajo
Arizona National Guard
Bellemont, AZ

Civil Service

  • Participating Scientist on DAWN at Vesta
  • Extensive experience analyzing Mars Odyssey (ODY) THermal Emission IMaging System (THEMIS) data
  • Extensive experience extracting and analyzing Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data
  • Extensive knowledge of several programming languages, including IDL
  • Writes and maintains a GUI software package that enhances the analysis of TES spectral data
  • Extensive knowledge of multivariate analysis techniques, especially Principal Components Analysis (PCA)


  • Cornwall, C.; Titus, T. N., 2010, A comparison of Martian north and south polar cold spots and the long-term effects of the 2001 global dust storm, J. Geophys. Res., Volume 115, Issue E6, CiteID E06011.
  • Cull, S.; Arvidson, R.E.; Mellon, M.; Wiseman, S.; Clark, R.; Titus, T.N.; Morris, R.V.; McGuire, P.2010, Seasonal H2O and CO2 ice cycles at the Mars Phoenix landing site: 1. Prelanding CRISM and HiRISE observations, J. Geophys. Res., Volume 115, Issue 1, CiteID E00D16.
  • Mellon, M. T., Boynton, W. V., Feldman, W. C., Arvidson, R. E., Titus, T. N., Bandfield, J. L., Putzig, N., and Sizemore, H., 2008, A Pre-Landing Assessment of the Ice-Table Depth and Ground-Ice Characteristics in Martian Permafrost at the Phoenix Landing Site, J. Geophys. Res., Volume 113, Issue E12, CiteID E00A25, doi:10.1029/2007JE003067.
  • Titus, T.N., W . M . Calvin, H . H . Kieffer, Y. Langevin, T.H. Prettyman, Martian Polar Processes, Ch. 25 in Bell III, J. F., ed., 2008, The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy, and Physical Properties, Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9780521866989.
  • Wynne, J. Judson; Titus, Timothy N.; Chong Diaz, Guillermo, 2008, On developing thermal cave detection techniques for earth, the moon and mars, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 272, Issue 1-2, p. 240-250.
  • Cushing, Glen E.; Titus, Timothy N., 2008, MGS-TES thermal inertia study of the Arsia Mons Caldera, Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 113, Issue E6, CiteID E06006
  • Titus, Timothy N.; Colaprete, Anthony; Prettyman, Thomas H., 2008 Introduction to planetary and space science special issue: Mars polar processes, Planetary and Space Science, Volume 56, Issue 2, p. 147-149.
  • Calvin, W. M.; Titus, T. N., 2008 Summer season variability of the north residual cap of Mars as observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES), Planetary and Space Science, Volume 56, Issue 2, p. 212-226.
  • Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Titus, Timothy N.; Ivanov, Anton B.; CastañRebecca; Bandfield, Joshua L., 2008 Observations of the north polar water ice annulus on Mars using THEMIS and TES, Planetary and Space Science, Volume 56, Issue 2, p. 256-265.
  • Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Fenton, Lori K.; Hare, Trent M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bourke, Mary C.; Colaprete, Anthony; Christensen, Philip R., 2007, Mars Global Digital Dune Database and initial science results, Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 112, Issue E11, CiteID E11007
  • Cushing, G. E.; Titus, T. N.; Wynne, J. J.; Christensen, P. R., 2007 THEMIS observes possible cave skylights on Mars Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L17201
  • Armstrong, J. C.; Nielson, S. K.; Titus, T. N., 2007, Survey of TES high albedo events in Mars' northern polar craters, Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, Issue 1, CiteID L01202
  • Kieffer, Hugh H.; Christensen, Philip R.; Titus, Timothy N.,2006, CO2 jets formed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars' seasonal south polar ice cap, Nature, Volume 442, Issue 7104, pp. 793-796.
  • Johnson, J., Staid, M., Titus, T., Becker, K., 2006, Shocked plagioclase signatures in Thermal Emission Spectrometer data of Mars, Icarus, Volume 180, Issue 1, p. 60-74.
  • Titus, T., 2005, Thermal infrared and visual observations of a water ice lag in the Mars southern summer, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 32, L24204, doi:10.1029/2005GL024211.
  • Cushing, G., Titus, T., Christensen, P.,2005, THEMIS VIS and IR observations of a high-altitude Martian dust devil, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 32, L23202, doi:10.1029/2005GL024478.
  • Titus, T., Colaprete,A., 2005, Mars Atmospheric Surface Interactions and the CO2 Cycle, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(46), 462, doi:10.1029/2005EO460006.
  • Colaprete, A, Barnes, J., Haberle, R., Hollingsworth, J., Kieffer, H., Titus, T.,2005, Albedo of the south pole on Mars determined by topographic forcing of atmosphere dynamics, Nature, Volume 435, Issue 7039, pp. 184-188.
  • Armstrong, J., Titus, T., Kieffer, H., 2005, Evidence for subsurface water ice in Korolev crater, Icarus, Volume 174, Issue 2, p. 360-372.
  • Eluszkiewicz, J., Moncet, J-L., Titus, T., Hansen, G., 2005, A microphysically-based approach to modeling emissivity and albedo of the martian seasonal caps, Icarus, Volume 174, Issue 2, p. 524-534.
  • James, P., Hansen, G., Titus, T., 2005,The carbon dioxide cycle, Advances in Space Research, Volume 35, Issue 1, p. 14-20.
  • Prettyman, T., Titus, T., 2004, Exploring Martian Polar Atmospheric Circulation and Surface Interactions, Eos Trans. AGU, 85(41), 403, doi:10.1029/2004EO410005.
  • Haberle, R., Mattingly, B., Titus, T., 2004, Reconciling different observations of the CO2 ice mass loading of the Martian north polar cap, Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 31, Issue 5, CiteID L05702.
  • Titus, T., 2004, Mars: Water, water everywhere, Nature, Volume 428, Issue 6983, pp. 610-611.
  • Titus, T., Kieffer, H., Christensen, P.,2003, Exposed Water Ice Discovered near the South Pole of Mars, Science, Vol. 299, Issue 5609, pp. 1048-1051.
  • Kieffer, H., Titus, T.,2001, TES mapping of Mars' north seasonal cap, Icarus, Vol. 154, Issue 1, pp. 162-180.
  • Titus, T., Kieffer, H, 2001, Slab Ice and Snow Flurries in the Martian Polar Night, J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 106 , No. E10 , p. 23,181.
  • Kieffer, H., Titus, T., Mullins, K., Christensen, P.,1999, Mars south polar spring and summer behavior observed by TES: Season cap evolution controlled by frost grain size., J.Geophys. Res., vol. 105, no. E4, 9653-9699.
  • Titus, T., Spillar, E., Johnson, P.,1997, Population analysis of faint galaxies with mixture modeling., Astron. J., 114, 958.