Astrogeology Science Center

Education

The Ohio State University

  • Ph. D., Geodetic Science and Surveying, 1987 April
    • Dissertation Advisor: Dr. Ivan I. Mueller
    • Dissertation title: Determination of Earth Rotation by the Combination of Data from Different Space Geodetic Systems
  • M.S., Geodetic Science and Surveying, 1982 December
    • Thesis Advisor: Dr. Ivan I. Mueller
    • Thesis title: A Comparison of Geodetic Doppler Satellite Receivers
  • B.S., Geodetic Science, 1978 June

Research

U.S. Geological Survey, Astrogeology Research Program

  • Research Geodesist 2000 May - present
  • Supervisors: Dr. A. W. Ward, Jr., Dr. L. R. Gaddis
  • Research topics: Development and application of digital photogrammetric techniques to provide for improved geodetic control on planetary surfaces, which can be used in turn for the production of cartographic products, navigational information, and to determine the structure of planetary interiors and the morphology of planetary surface features. Derivation of a new planetary control network for Jupiter's moon Io, for use in the creation of the final USGS mosaics of Io. Improvement of the planetary control network for Mars, for use in creation of MDIM 2.1 mosaic. High-resolution mapping of proposed MER landing sites on Mars. Investigation into the use of 2001 Mars Odyssey THEMIS images for global infrared, thermal (100 m), and visible (18 m) Mars mosaics. Development of photogrammetric models for processing MER imagery. Mapping of Saturn's moon Titan using Huygens images.

U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC

  • Astronomer 1987 April - 2000 May
  • Supervisor: Dr. Dennis D. McCarthy
  • Research topics: Development of techniques to combine data from different space-based geodetic systems (e.g. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging, lunar laser ranging, GPS satellite tracking), to determine Earth orientation parameters, and other geophysical parameters of interest (the Earth's gravity field, tides, tectonic plate motions, etc.); Development and maintenance of Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames and Systems, including the creation and the maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), to which all other coordinate systems are now referred.

Department of Geodetic Science and Surveying, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH

  • Research Assistant 1982 December - 1987 April
  • Supervisor: Dr. Ivan I. Mueller

Henderson Aerial Surveys, Columbus, OH

  • Surveyor and Programmer 1978 June - 1985 April
  • Supervisor: Norman L. Henderson

Honors

  • Minor Planet no. 11941 named Archinal by International Astronomical Union, 2000 November
  • Profiled in Sky & Telescope (pp. 89-90), 1999 November
  • JGR Solid Earth Editor's Citation for Excellence in Refereeing, 1996 May
  • Numerous awards for Superior Performance, U. S. Naval Observatory. 1988-1999

Service

  • Mars Exploration Rover Athena Science Team Collaborator 2003 August-present
  • Member, Board of Trustees, Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 2002 November-present
  • Vice-Chair, IAU/IAG WG on Cart. Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites 2004 June-present
  • Member, IAU/IAG WG on Cart. Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites 2002 July-present
  • Consultant, IAU/IAG WG on Cart. Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites 2000 August-2002 June
  • Member, Board of Trustees, Coconino Astronomical Society, Flagstaff, AZ 2001 March - present
  • Member, Mars Geodesy/Cartography Working Group 2000 June-present
  • Consultant, NCITS/L8 (ANSI) Committee on Data Representation 1996 November-1998 March
  • Member, IAU Working Group on Earth Orientation in the Hipparcos Reference Frame 1988-2000
  • Member, Board of Directors, U. S. National Earth Orientation Service 1988-2000

Bibliography

  • Archinal, B. A., Kirk, R. L., Duxbury, T. C., Lee, E. M., Sucharski, R., and Cook, D., 2004, The Mars Digital Image Model (MDIM) 2.1 Global Control Network, in preparation.
  • Archinal, B. A., Lee, E. M., Kirk, R. L., Duxbury, T. C., Sucharski, R. M., Cook, D. A. and Barrett, J. M., 2004, A New Mars Digital Image Model (MDIM 2.1) Control Network, XXth Congress of the International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Commission IV, WG IV/9, 12-23 July, Istanbul, Turkey. Submitted.
  • Archinal, B. A., Weller, L., Sides, S., Cushing, G., Kirk, R. L., Soderblom, L. A., and Duxbury, T. C., 2004, Preparing For THEMIS Controlled Global Mars Mosaics, (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXV, Abstract #1903, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., Hare, T. M., Soricone, R., Ross, K., Weller, L., Rosiek, M., Redding, B., Galuszka, D., Archinal, B. A. , and Haldemann, A, 2004, High-Resolution Topomapping Of Mars: Life After MER Site Selection, (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXV, Abstract #2046, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Herkenhoff, K., Squyres, S., Archinal, B., Arvidson, R., Bass, D., Barrett, J., Becker, K., Becker, T., Bell III, J., Burr, D., Cook, D., Crumpler, L., Gaddis, L., Ghosh, A., Hayes, A., Howington-Kraus, A., Johnson, J., Jolliff, B., Kirk, R., Lee, E. M., Lemmon, M., Maki, J., McLennan, S., Ming, D., Morris, R., Niebur, C., Rice, J., Rosiek, M., Sims, M., Smith, P., Spanovich, N., Sucharski, B., Sucharski, T., Sullivan, R., Torson, J., Weitz, C., the Magnetic Properties Team, and the Athena Science Team, 2004, First Results of The Athena Microscopic Imager Investigation, (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXV, Abstract #2182, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Parker, T., Malin, M., Golombek, M., Duxbury, T., Johnson, A., Guinn, J., McElrath, T., Kirk, R., Archinal, B., Soderblom, L., and the MER Navigation Team and Athena Science Team, 2004, Localization, Localization, Localization, (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXV, Abstract #2189, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., Hare, T. M., Soricone, R., Ross, K., Weller, L., Rosiek, M., Redding, B., Galuszka, D., Archinal, B. A., and Haldemann, A., 2004, High-Resolution Topomapping Of Mars: Life After MER Site Selection, European Geophysical Union meeting, Nice, France, April. Submitted.
  • Archinal, B. A., Lee, E. M., Kirk, R. L., Duxbury, T. C., Sucharski, R. M., Cook, D. A., and Barrett, J. M, 2004, MDIM 2.1: A Geodetically Precise Global Viking Image Mosaic of Mars Based on MOLA Control, XXth Congress, ISPRS, Commission IV, WG IV/9, abstract. Submitted.
  • Kirk, R. L., Squyres, S., Neukum, G., and the MER Athena and MEX HRSC Science Teams. 2004, Topographic Mapping of Mars: From Hectometer to Micrometer Scales, XXth Congress, ISPRS, Commission IV, WG IV/9, abstract. Submitted.
  • Li, Rongxing, Di, Kaichang, Matthies, Larry H., Arvidson, Raymond E., Folkner, William M., and Archinal, Brent A., 2004, Rover Localization and Landing Site Mapping Technology For 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission, Journal of Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, v. 70, no. 1, January, pp. 77-90.
  • Kirk, Randolph L., Howington-Kraus, Elpitha, Redding, Bonnie, Galuszka, Donna, Hare, Trent M., Archinal, Brent A., Soderblom, Laurence A., and Barrett, Janet M., 2003 High-resolution topomapping of candidate MER landing sites with Mars Orbiter Camera narrow-angle images, JGR, 108, no. E12, 8088. doi:1029/2003JE002131,2003.
  • Archinal, Brent A., Kirk, R., Howington-Kraus, E., Rosiek, M., Soderblom, L., and Lee, E., 2003, Mapping Mars at Global to Human Scales, in O. Engvold, ed., Highlights of Astronomy, Volume 13, International Astronomical Union, abstract. In press.
  • Archinal, B. A., Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., Rosiek, M., Soderblom, L., and Lee, E., 2003, Mapping Mars at Global to Human Scales (abs.), International Astronomical Union, 25th General Assembly, p. 269.
  • Archinal, B. A., Kirk, R. L., Duxbury, T. C., Lee, E. M., Sucharski, R., and Cook, D., 2003, Mars Digital Image Model (MDIM) 2.1 control network, ISPRS Working Group IV/9 Workshop "Advances in Planetary Mapping 2003", Houston, March 2003.
  • Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., Redding, B., Galuszka, D., Hare, T., and Archinal, B. A., 2003, High-resolution topomapping of candidate MER landing sites with MOC: New results and error analyses (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXIV, Abstract #1966, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Archinal, B. A., Kirk, R. L., Duxbury, T. C., Lee, E. M., Sucharski, R., Cook, D., 2003, Mars Digital Image Model 2.1 control network (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXIV, Abstract #1485, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., Soderblom, L. A., and Archinal, B. A., 2002, Topographic mapping of Mars: Approaching the human scale (abs.), EOS Trans. AGU, 83(47), Suppl., Abstract P22D-10.
  • Archinal, B. A., and Caplinger, M. C., 2002, Mars, the Meridian, and Mert: The Quest for Martian Longitude (abs), EOS Trans. AGU, 83(47), Suppl., Abstract P22D-06.
  • Archinal, B. A., 2002, Planetary Geodesy: The Mapping of Mars at Global to Local Scales (abs.), Weikko A. Heiskannen Symposium in Geodesy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, October 1-4 (CD-ROM), abstract 11.2.
  • Kirk, R. L., Soderblom, L. A., Howington-Kraus, E., and Archinal, B. A., 2002, USGS high resolution topomapping of Mars with Mars Orbiter Camera Narrow-Angle images, International Archives of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, XXXIV, 4, "Geospatial Theory, Processing and Applications", Ottawa (CD-ROM).
  • Duxbury, T. C., Kirk, R. L., Archinal., B. A., and Neumann, G. A., 2002, Mars Geodesy/Cartography Working Group recommendations on Mars cartographic constants and coordinate systems, International Archives of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing, 31, part 4, "Geospatial Theory, Processing and Applications", Ottawa (CD-ROM).
  • Archinal, B. A., Colvin, T. R., Davies, M. E., Kirk, R. L., Duxbury, T. C., Lee, E. M., Cook, D., and Gitlin, A. R., 2002, A MOLA-Controlled RAND-USGS Control Network for Mars (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXIII, Abstract #1632, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., and Archinal, B. A., 2002, Topographic Analysis of Candidate Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites from MOC Narrow Angle Stereoimages (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXIII, Abstract #1988, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Archinal, B. A., Davies, M. E., Colvin, T. R., Becker, T. L., Kirk, R. L., and Gitlin, A. R., 2001, Improving the RAND-USGS Control Network for Io, ISPRS WG IV/9: Extraterrestrial Mapping Workshop "Planetary Mapping 2001", virtual workshop.
  • Duxbury, T.C., Kirk, R., and Archinal, B. A., 2001, Mars Geodesy/Cartography Working; Group Recommendations on Mars Cartographic Constants and Coordinate Systems, ISPRS WG IV/9: Extraterrestrial Mapping Workshop "Planetary Mapping 2001", virtual workshop.
  • Kirk, R. L., Howington-Kraus, E., and Archinal, B. A., 2001, High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Mars from MOC Narrow Angle Stereoimages, ISPRS WG IV/9: Extraterrestrial Mapping Workshop "Planetary Mapping 2001", virtual workshop,
  • Kirk, R. L., Rosiek, M., Howington-Kraus, E., Lee, E., and Archinal, B., 2001, Recent Planetary Geodesy and Cartography at the USGS, Flagstaff: Moon, Mars, Venus, and Beyond (abs.), International Cartographic Association Conference, Beijing, China, 2001 August 6-10.
  • Archinal, B. A., Davies, M. E., Colvin, T. R., Becker, T. L., Kirk, R. L., and Gitlin, A. R., 2001, An improved RAND-USGS control network and size determination for Io (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXII, Abstract #1746, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Becker, T., Archinal, B. A., Colvin, T., Davies, M. E., Gitlin, A., Kirk, R. L., and Weller, L., 2001, Final Digital Global Maps of Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXII, Abstract #2009, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Kirk, R. L., Archinal, B. A., Lee, E. M., Davies, M. E., Colvin, T. R., and Duxbury, T. C., 2001, Global image mosaics of Mars: Assessment of geodetic accuracy (abs.), Lunar Planet. Sci., XXXII, Abstract #1856, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston (CD-ROM).
  • Archinal, B. A., Davies, M. E., Colvin, T. R., Becker, T. L., Kirk, R. L., and Gitlin, A. R., 2000, A new RAND-USGS control network and size determination for Io (abs.), Eos Trans. AGU, 81, suppl., F317.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Josties, F. J., and Ray, J. R., 1999, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, NEOS Annual Report, pp. 3-7.
  • Ma, C., Arias, E. F., Eubanks, T. M., Fey, A. L., Gontier, A.-M., Jacobs, C. S., Sovers, O. J., Archinal, B. A., and Charlot, P., 1999, ICRF Maintenance - First Extension of the ICRF, ICRF-Ext.1, IERS Annual Report for 1998, pp. 87-114.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Josties, F. J., and Ray, J. R., 1998, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, IERS Annual Report for 1997.
  • Ma, C., Arias, E. F., Eubanks, T. M., Fey, A. L., Gontier, A.-M., Jacobs, C. S., Sovers, O. J., Archinal, B. A., and Charlot, P., 1998, The International Celestial Reference Frame As Realized by Very Long Baseline Interferometry, Astronomical Journal, 116, pp. 516-546.
  • Archinal, B. A., Arias, E. F., Gontier, A.-M., Mercuri-Moreau, C., Sovers, O. J., Fey, A., Charlot, P., and Eubanks, T. M., 1997, Technical Information on the ICRF, part III of Ma, C. and Feissel, M. (eds.), Definition and Realization of the International Celestial Reference System by VLBI Astrometry of Extragalactic Objects, IERS Technical Note 23, Observatoire de Paris, Paris.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Matsakis, D. N., Martin, J. O., Archinal, B. A., Fey, A. L., Josties, J. F., McCarthy, D. D., Klioner, S. A., Fomalont, E., Beasley, A. J., and Shapiro, I. I., 1997, Advances in Solar System Tests of Gravity (abs.)," 1997 Meeting of The American Physical Society.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1996, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, The U. S. National Earth Orientation Service Annual Report for 1995, U. S. Naval Observatory and Geosciences Laboratory, NOAA, Washington, DC, pp. 3-14.
  • McCarthy, D. D. and Archinal, B. A., 1996, Improved Models for Earth Orientation Determination," Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation 52nd Annual Meeting, Institute of Navigation, Alexandria, VA, pp. 759-764.
  • Matsakis, D. N. and Archinal, B. A., 1996, Modern Frequency Standards and Time Comparisons, Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation 52nd Annual Meeting, Institute of Navigation, Alexandria, VA, pp. 741-748.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1995, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, The U. S. National Earth Orientation Service Annual Report for 1994, U. S. Naval Observatory and the NOAA Geosciences Laboratory, Washington, D.C., pp. 14-27.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1995, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, in Earth orientation, reference frames and atmospheric excitation functions submitted for the 1994 IERS Annual report, IERS Technical Note 19, Observatoire de Paris, Paris. pp. R-51 to R-54.
  • K. L. Johnston, Fey, A. L., Zacharias, N., Russell, J. L., Ma, C., de Vegt, C., Reynolds, J. E., Jauncey, D. L., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Corbin, T. E., Eubanks, T. M., Florkowski, D. R., Hall, D. M., McCarthy, D. D., McCulloch, P. M., King, E. A., Nicolson, G., and Shaffer, D. B., 1995, A Radio Reference Frame, The Astronomical Journal, 110, pp. 880-915.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Matsakis, D. N., Josties, F. J., Archinal, B. A., Kingham, K. A., Martin, J. O., McCarthy, D. D., and Gurvits. L., 1994, Cosmological Implications of Size, Flux and Brightness Temperature Measurements of Extra-galactic Radio Sources (abs.), Symposium S 168, Examining the Big Bang and Diffuse Background Radiations, IAU XXIInd General Assembly.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Matsakis, D. N., Josties, F. J., Archinal, B. A., Kingham, K. A., Martin, J. O., McCarthy, D. D., Klioner, S. A., and Herring, T. A., 1994, Secular Motions of Extragalactic Radio Sources and the Stability of the Radio Reference Frame (abs.), Symposium S 166, Astronomical and Astrophysical Objectives of SubMilliArc Second Optical Astrometry, IAU XXIInd General Assembly.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1994, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, NEOS Annual Report for 1993, U.S. Naval Observatory and The Geosciences Laboratory, NOAA, Washington, D.C., pp. 24-37.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D.D., 1994, Earth Orientation Results from the U.S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, IERS Annual Report for 1993.
  • Gordon, D., Ryan, J. W., Ma, C., Gipson, J., Eubanks, T. M., and Archinal, B. A., 1994, Recent Improvements in Geodetic VLBI Models (abs.), Eos Trans. Suppl., 75, p. 106.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Kingham, K. A., Martin, J. O., Matsakis, D. N., McCarthy, D. D., and Gipson, J. M., 1994, Non Tidal Variations of Earth Orientation at Very High Frequencies (abs.), Eos Trans. Suppl., 75, p. 111.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Kingham, K. A., Martin, J. O., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1994, Scientific Results from EPOCH'92 Observations Organized by the USNO, IERS (1994) Technical Note No. 16.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1993, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, NEOS Annual Report for 1992, U.S. Naval Observatory and The Geosciences Laboratory, NOAA, Washington, D.C., pp. 20-27.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1993, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, IERS Annual Report for 1992.
  • Archinal, B. A., 1993, Summary of Photographic Zenith Tube Observations of the U. S. Naval Observatory, U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC.
  • Jauncey, D. L., Reynolds, J. E., Tzioumis, A. K., Johnston, K. J., Russell, J. L., Fey, A. L., McCulloch, P. M., King, E. A., deVegt, C., Zacharias, N., Nicolson, G. D., McLeod, G. C., Ma, C., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Holdenreid, E., Kingham, K., Malin, D. F., Takahashi, Y., Kawaguchi, N., White, G. L., and Shaffer, D. L., 1993, Accurate Southern Hemisphere Astrometry, Proceedings of the Int. Workshop for Reference Frame Establishment & Technical Development in Space Geodesy: iRiS '93, Communications Research Laboratory, Koganei, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 277-284.
  • Archinal, B. A., 1992, Determining the Earth's Orientation - From the dawn of the Space Age into the future (abs.), Eos Trans Suppl., 73, p. 118.
  • Matsakis, D. N., Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Kingham, K. A., Martin, J. O., and McCarthy, D. D., 1992, Analysis of NAVNET Geodetic VLBI Post-Fit Delay Residuals (abs.), Eos Trans Suppl., 73, p. 132.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Kingham, K. A., Martin, J. O., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1992, The Contribution to the EPOCH-92 Measurement Campaign Organized by the U. S. Naval Observatory (abs.), Eos Trans Suppl., 73, p. 134.
  • Archinal, B. A., Eubanks, T. M., Ma, C., and Ryan, J. W., 1992, Recent Improvements in VLBI Modeling and Software (abs.), Eos Trans Suppl., 73, p. 80.
  • Fey, A. L., Russell, J. L., Ma, C., Johnston, K. J., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Holdenried, E. R., and Yao, Z., 1992, A Radio Optical Reference Frame. IV. Additional Radio Source Positions in the Northern Hemisphere, The Astronomical Journal, 104, p. 891.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., McCarthy, D. D., and Archinal, B. A., 1991, Sub-diurnal Variations in Earth Rotation Rate Confirmed Through Comparison of Simultaneous by Independent VLBI Results (abs.), Eos Trans Suppl, 72, p. 120.
  • McCarthy, D. D., Russell, J., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Florkowski, D., Holdenried, E., Johnston, K., and Yao, Z., 1991, The Extragalactic Reference Frame, in Hughes, J.A., Smith, C. A., and Kaplan, G. H., eds., Proceedings of the 127th Colloquium of the IAU: Reference Systems U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, pp. 309-313.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Kingham, K. A., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1991, The Design of a New Radio Telescope for Geodetic VLBI (abs.), Eos Trans Suppl., 72, p. 93.
  • Eubanks, T. M., Archinal, B. A., Carter, M. S., Josties, F. J., Matsakis, D. N., and McCarthy, D. D., 1991, Earth Orientation Results from the U. S. Naval Observatory VLBI Program, IERS Annual Report for 1990.