USGS

INTRODUCTION to the Europa source data

Europa has now been visited by five spacecraft:

Mission

Closest encounter date(s)

Type of encounter

Significant Europa discoveries

Closest approach (km)

Best image resolution

Pioneer 10

3 December 1973

flyby

uneven albedo

324,000 km

161 km

Pioneer 11

2 December 1974

flyby

--

?

?

Voyager 1

5 March 1979

flyby

large crack-like streaks

734,000

33 km

Voyager 2

9 July 1979

flyby

  • frozen ocean surface
  • smooth, young surface
  • 206,000

    4 km

    Galileo

    7 December 1995 to 31 December 1999

    Jupiter orbiter

  • thin atmosphere
  • magnetic field
  • ice crust 10-40km thick
  • 588 km

    (encounter E6)

    12 m


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